A 72-h fast results in a rapid decrease in circulating glucose to a lower level without a change in non-water body mass. Several metabolic adjustments are necessary. A nutrient-sufficient, carbohydrate (CHO)-free diet also has been reported to result in a decrease in glucose, and similar metabolic perturbations. However, direct comparisons are not available in subjects without, or with, type 2 diabetes (T2DM).
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The United Nations has created the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) initiative in an attempt to end the HIV/AIDS epidemic worldwide by the year 2030. In an effort to assist in the SDG cause, the current study sought to obtain data from clients in Botswana regarding the perceptions of their experiences with HIV/AIDS counseling from 25 randomly selected hospitals/clinics.
Effects of Long-Acting Injectable Progesterone Given Two Days after Luteolysis on Estrus Suppression in Mares
Administration of exogenous progesterone or progestin can suppress estrous behavior in mares. Compounded long-acting formulations of progesterone are widely available. The objective of this study was to determine if a long-acting injectable progesterone formulation would suppress behavioral estrus in mares. Five mares were monitored daily by rectal palpation and transrectal ultrasonography to insure that all mares were cycling normally. Endogenous progesterone was removed through lysis of the corpus luteum seven days post-ovulation with prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2α). Two days following PGF2α administration, mares received 2 g of long-acting progesterone intramuscularly. Estrous behavior was determined daily by individually exposing mares to a stallion beginning two days before injection of long-acting progesterone until ovulation occurred. Serum progesterone concentrations were significantly elevated (>2 ng/mL) for 10 days following treatment with a long-acting injectable progesterone. Behavioral estrus suppression during this period was minimal and not significant. All mares developed local injection site reactions and half the mares developed febrile responses following treatment. In conclusion, the long-acting compounded formulation of progesterone elevates progesterone concentrations for 10 days but does not suppress estrous behavior to a stallion. Due to the side effects associated with this treatment, long-acting formulations of injectable progesterone are not appropriate for use in performance horses.
The Influence of Sodium on the Characterization of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Thin Films Prepared by Three-Stage Deposition Process
The objective of this work is to investigate the influence of sodium on the characteristics of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin films prepared by a three-stage deposition process with a MoNa back contact, in comparison to Mo/SLG. The XRD results show that all the CIGS thin films deposited onto Mo/SLG substrates have the (112) preferred orientation, rather than the (220/204) orientation of CIGS deposited onto Na-free substrates.